Short-term memory is the ability to store and process information in a temporary memory domain. It stores a small amount of information and the information storage time is very short, measured in seconds.
A 2010 University of Stirling study suggested a link between short-term memory (or working memory) and depression. The lower the level of short-term memory retention, the higher the risk of depression. Between 10 and 15 percent of survey participants, with the worst working memory in the study, tended to ruminate on things too much, leading to an increased risk of depression.
On the other hand, people with a good working memory have a more optimistic, confident attitude, they are more likely to maintain a happy and successful life.
Features of short-term memory
Short-term memory is strongly influenced by the environment
A recent study at the University of Michigan found that short-term memory processing is directly affected by the surroundings. Simply put, you will remember better if the surrounding environment is less distracting to the brain, such as noise, light, temperature, etc. For example, you will be easier to grasp information in an environment. quieter instead of noisy environment.
Short-term memory lasts for a very short time
Short-term memories are memories that are not regularly practiced or maintained, so they only last for a few seconds (usually 20-30 seconds).
Some information can last for up to 60 seconds, but most of this information, when received by the brain, will quickly disappear without leaving any memory.
Short-term memory is very short-lived 1
For example, you may see your colleague dialing a number to contact another department. You can remember this phone number in seconds. However, after a while you realize that you have completely forgotten this sequence of numbers. That means that, with no practice or the information is not repeated often, the information will quickly disappear from short-term memory.
Of course, we can increase the duration of short-term memories to some extent with some practice techniques, such as reading aloud the information you receive or mumbling over and over again. However, information in short-term memory is also very susceptible to “noise”. Any new information that enters short-term memory quickly replaces any pre-existing old information.
While many of our short-term memories are quickly forgotten, attending to this information allows it to continue to the next stage – long-term memory.